„This is certainly a blow to the Paris agreement,“ said Carlos Fuller of Belize, the negotiator for the Alliance of Small Island States in the UN talks. Under Article 28 of the Paris Agreement, a country cannot announce its withdrawal from the agreement until three years after it enters into force in the country concerned, i.e. on November 4, 2016 in the case of the United States. Later, the White House said the United States would abide by the four-year withdrawal process.  On November 4, 2019, the administration announced a formal intention to resign, which takes 12 months. Until the withdrawal came into effect, the United States was required to meet its obligations under the agreement, such as the obligation to continue reporting its emissions to the United Nations.  The withdrawal came into effect on November 4, 2020, the day after the 2020 U.S. presidential elections.  You could be forgiven for thinking that the United States left the global agreement on climate change a long time ago. Since 2017, when President Trump announced his intention to abandon the pact, he has been talking about withdrawal as if it were a final deal. In fact, the exit from the Paris Agreement has been a long process. Climate scientist and founder of Germany`s New Climate Institute, Niklas Huhne, said Turkey was „reseming“ the list of countries that do not yet need to ratify the agreement.
As of Wednesday, in addition to the United States, Angola, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, South Sudan, Turkey and Yemen, countries that originally signed the Paris Agreement but have not officially adopted it are also present. Although the agreement was signed in December 2015, the treaty did not enter into force until November 4, 2016, 30 days after ratification by at least 55 countries representing 55% of global emissions. Support for this and opposition to this approach has been reported by Trump`s cabinet and advisers: Energy Secretary Rick Perry, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, Economic Adviser Gary Cohn and Adviser and Son-in-law Jared Kushner would have wanted the United States to stick to the agreement, while White House Adviser Steve Bannon , White House counsel Don McGahn and EPO Administrator Scott Pruitt wanted the United States to abandon him.  The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to obligations that belong exclusively to the other and there was concern that there was a disagreement over each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  International conventions are initially signed to indicate the intention to signal broadcasting power, but they only become binding through ratification.